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What is laser welding?

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Today I want to talk to you about laser welding. The simple understanding of laser welding is to use laser as energy to melt materials and achieve welding between materials.

Since we want to implement laser welding, we must first understand what is a laser?

A simple understanding of a laser is a beam of light. The brightness of this beam of light is very bright. When the bright light is gathered together, it can form a very high energy. The equipment that generates this energy is called a laser. Let’s take a look at the structure diagram of a laser:

The picture looks simple, but what does the picture specifically mean?

The gray rod in the middle is called YAG, and its Chinese name is yttrium aluminum garnet. In fact, it looks like a glass rod. Some neodymium elements are put in the glass rod. The glass rod with neodymium elements will look beautiful, and the glass rod will become into pink.

Why put neodymium?

The element neodymium is very unstable and emits light when stimulated.

We need a laser, so we must constantly stimulate neodymium, and neodymium will continue to emit light. The light (wavelength) emitted by neodymium is very stable – 1064nm!

Because this wavelength is beyond the range that the human eye can detect, we cannot see it.

Lamps that stimulate the neodymium element are called pump lamps. This lamp is similar to a daily fluorescent lamp. If the lamp flashes back and forth frequently, it will break. After a few years, it will need to be replaced when it stops shining.

To collect and utilize the light excited by the laser rod, two optical lenses must be blocked on both sides of the laser rod, like two gates, to allow the light to emit in a certain direction.

This picture shows three lasers being strung together, increasing the laser energy step by step, and then transmitting it along the red and black routes.

Because the laser is transmitted by optical fiber, this laser is also called a fiber-conducted laser.

The appearance of the laser is like this. If you stare at the laser while the laser is emitting, the light in the laser will flash and blink, which will blind everyone’s eyes. Therefore, you must wear protective glasses when using the laser.

I just talked about a laser. Scientists have divided lasers into gas lasers, solid lasers, and semiconductor lasers based on the different substances that produce laser light. Here’s a picture:

The simple understanding is that the material that produces laser is a gas, which is called a gas laser. The material that produces laser is a solid, which is called a solid laser…

Assembling the laser with the workbench, control software, etc., it becomes laser welding equipment. The appearance of the equipment has various…

There are big and small, high and low, and they can be customized according to different usage conditions. Just give an example here.

Now that the introduction to lasers is over, it’s time to start introducing welding.

The laser generates laser light and focuses it through some external optical lenses. This action is similar to when we hold a magnifying glass and burn a piece of paper under the sun. The paper will catch fire after a while after being exposed to high temperatures.

The action of laser welding is the same as this. Most of the time, the material we want to burn is metal, and our light source is a laser.

When the laser irradiates the material, it performs several actions. That is, the longer the burning time, the deeper the material will be burned.

According to the different depths of material melting, the welding process can be divided into heat conduction welding and deep penetration welding.

When welding two workpieces, different names are given according to the different overlapping methods of the workpieces.

What remains true is that because the laser spot is very small, the workpieces must be as flat as possible after overlapping, and the assembly gap must be as small as possible.

Experts summarized a table based on the weldability between different materials.

This table can preliminarily judge the weldability between different metals. Of course, there are many details in it. For example, the welding of stainless steel is divided into welding between different grades, aluminum alloys also have different grades, and the welding between different grades of the same metal The weldability of materials is very different, so I won’t go into details…

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